In general, both men and women perform better in competitive situations. However, when women are in a state of elevated stress, competition has the opposite effect and leads to worse performance. As a consequence, women under stress increasingly shy away from competition, according to a recently published study from economic researchers from Germany, the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom. Their results could help explain why women are underrepresented in high-paid jobs and in leadership positions. The results also have implications for efficient management practices, including hiring and performance incentives.